Framework Convention on Climate Change

source : United Nations FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1

15 March 2011

Report of the Conference of the Parties on its sixteenth
session, held in Cancun from 29 November to
10 December 2010
Addendum
Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties
at its sixteenth session
Contents
Decisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties

Decision
1/CP.16 The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working
Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention

Decision 1/CP.16
The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad
Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action
under the Convention
The Conference of the Parties,
Recalling its decision 1/CP.13 (the Bali Action Plan) and decision 1/CP.15,
Seeking to secure progress in a balanced manner, with the understanding that,
through this decision, not all aspects of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Longterm Cooperative Action under the Convention are concluded, and that nothing in this
decision shall prejudge prospects for, or the content of, a legally binding outcome in the
future,
Reaffirming the commitment to enable the full, effective and sustained
implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and
beyond 2012, in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention,
Recalling the principles, provisions and commitments set forth in the Convention, in
particular its Articles 3 and 4,
Recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible
threat to human societies and the planet, and thus requires to be urgently addressed by all
Parties,
Affirming the legitimate needs of developing country Parties for the achievement of
sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty, so as to be able to deal with
climate change,
Noting resolution 10/4 of the United Nations Human Rights Council on human
rights and climate change, which recognizes that the adverse effects of climate change have
a range of direct and indirect implications for the effective enjoyment of human rights and
that the effects of climate change will be felt most acutely by those segments of the
population that are already vulnerable owing to geography, gender, age, indigenous or
minority status, or disability,
I. A shared vision for long-term cooperative action
1. Affirms that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and that all
Parties share a vision for long-term cooperative action in order to achieve the objective of
the Convention under its Article 2, including through the achievement of a global goal, on
the basis of equity and in accordance with common but differentiated responsibilities and
respective capabilities; this vision is to guide the policies and actions of all Parties, while
taking into full consideration the different circumstances of Parties in accordance with the
principles and provisions of the Convention; the vision addresses mitigation, adaptation,
finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building in a balanced,
integrated and comprehensive manner to enhance and achieve the full, effective and
sustained implementation of the Convention, now, up to and beyond 2012;

2. Further affirms that:
(a) Scaled-up overall mitigation efforts that allow for the achievement of desired
stabilization levels are necessary, with developed country Parties showing leadership by
undertaking ambitious emission reductions and providing technology, capacity-building
and financial resources to developing country Parties, in accordance with the relevant
provisions of the Convention;
(b) Adaptation must be addressed with the same priority as mitigation and
requires appropriate institutional arrangements to enhance adaptation action and support;
(c) All Parties should cooperate, consistent with the principles of the
Convention, through effective mechanisms, enhanced means and appropriate enabling
environments, and enhance technology development and the transfer of technologies to
developing country Parties to enable action on mitigation and adaptation;
(d) Mobilization and provision of scaled-up, new, additional, adequate and
predictable financial resources is necessary to address the adaptation and mitigation needs
of developing countries;
(e) Capacity-building is essential to enable developing country Parties to
participate fully in, and to implement effectively, their commitments under the Convention;
and that the goal is to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties in all areas;
3. Recognizes that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and that most of the
observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very
likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, as
assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its Fourth Assessment
Report;
4. Further recognizes that deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required
according to science, and as documented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with a view to reducing global greenhouse gas
emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C above preindustrial levels, and that Parties should take urgent action to meet this long-term goal,
consistent with science and on the basis of equity; also recognizes the need to consider, in
the context of the first review, as referred to in paragraph 138 below, strengthening the
long-term global goal on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge, including in
relation to a global average temperature rise of 1.5 °C;
5. Agrees, in the context of the long-term goal and the ultimate objective of the
Convention and the Bali Action Plan, to work towards identifying a global goal for
substantially reducing global emissions by 2050, and to consider it at the seventeenth
session of the Conference of the Parties;
6. Also agrees that Parties should cooperate in achieving the peaking of global and
national greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that the time frame for
peaking will be longer in developing countries, and bearing in mind that social and
economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of
developing countries and that a low-carbon development strategy is indispensable to
sustainable development; in this context, further agrees to work towards identifying a time
frame for global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions based on the best available scientific
knowledge and equitable access to sustainable development, and to consider it at the
seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties;
7. Recognizes the need to engage a broad range of stakeholders at the global, regional,
national and local levels, be they government, including subnational and local government,
private business or civil society, including youth and persons with disability, and that

gender equality and the effective participation of women and indigenous peoples are
important for effective action on all aspects of climate change;
8. Emphasizes that Parties should, in all climate change related actions, fully respect
human rights;
9. Confirms that Parties, especially developing country Parties that would have to bear
a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the long-term cooperative action under the
Convention, should be given full consideration;
10. Realizes that addressing climate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a
low-carbon society that offers substantial opportunities and ensures continued high growth
and sustainable development, based on innovative technologies and more sustainable
production and consumption and lifestyles, while ensuring a just transition of the workforce
that creates decent work and quality jobs;

II. Enhanced action on adaptation

  1. 8. Agrees that adaptation is a challenge faced by all Parties, and that enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required to enable and support the implementation of adaptation actions aimed at reducing vulnerability and building resilience in developing country Parties, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable;
  2. 9. Affirms that enhanced action on adaptation should be undertaken in accordance with the Convention, should follow a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional and indigenous knowledge, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate;
  3. 10. Decides to hereby establish the Cancun Adaptation Framework encompassing the provisions laid out below, with the objective of enhancing action on adaptation, including through international cooperation and coherent consideration of matters relating to adaptation under the Convention;
  4. 11. Invites all Parties to enhance action on adaptation under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, by undertaking, inter alia, the following:

(a)            Planning, prioritizing and implementing adaptation actions, including projects and programmes,1 and actions identified in national and subnational adaptation plans and strategies, national adaptation programmes of action of the least developed countries, national communications, technology needs assessments and other relevant national planning documents;

(b)            Impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessments, including assessments of financial needs as well as economic, social and environmental evaluation of adaptation options;

(c)            Strengthening institutional capacities and enabling environments for adaptation, including for climate-resilient development and vulnerability reduction;

(d)            Building resilience of socio-economic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources;

(e)            Enhancing climate change related disaster risk reduction strategies, taking into consideration the Hyogo Framework for Action,2 where appropriate, early warning systems, risk assessment and management, and sharing and transfer mechanisms such as insurance, at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, as appropriate;

(f)             Measures to enhance understanding, coordination and cooperation with regard to climate change induced displacement, migration and planned relocation, where appropriate, at the national, regional and international levels;

(g)            Research, development, demonstration, diffusion, deployment and transfer of technologies, practices and processes, and capacity-building for adaptation, with a view to promoting access to technologies, in particular in developing country Parties;

(h)            Strengthening data, information and knowledge systems, education and public awareness;

(i)              Improving climate-related research and systematic observation for climate data collection, archiving, analysis and modelling in order to provide decision makers at the national and regional levels with improved climate-related data and information;

  1. 15. Decides to hereby establish a process to enable least developed country Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans, building upon their experience in preparing and implementing national adaptation programmes of action, as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs;
  2. 16. Invites other developing country Parties to employ the modalities formulated to support the above-mentioned national adaptation plans in the elaboration of their planning effort referred to in paragraph 14 (a) above;
  3. 17. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to elaborate modalities and guidelines for the provisions of paragraphs 15 and 16 above, for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;
  4. 18. Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties, taking into account the needs of those that are particularly vulnerable, with long-term, scaled-up, predictable, new and additional finance, technology and capacity-building, consistent with relevant provisions, to implement urgent, short-, medium- and long-term adaptation actions, plans, programmes and projects at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, in and across different economic and social sectors and ecosystems, as well as to undertake the activities referred to in paragraphs 14–16 above and paragraphs 30, 32 and 33 below;
  5. 19. Acknowledges the need to strengthen, enhance and better utilize existing institutional arrangements and expertise under the Convention;
  6. 20. Decides to hereby establish an Adaptation Committee to promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation in a coherent manner under the Convention, inter alia, through the following functions:

(a)            Providing technical support and guidance to the Parties, respecting the country-driven approach, with a view to facilitating the implementation of adaptation activities, including those listed in paragraphs 14 and 15 above, where appropriate;

(b)            Strengthening, consolidating and enhancing the sharing of relevant information, knowledge, experience and good practices, at the local, national, regional and

2 <http://www.unisdr.org/eng/hfa/hfa.htm>.

 

international levels, taking into account, as appropriate, traditional knowledge and practices;

(c)                           Promoting synergy and strengthening engagement with national, regional and international organizations, centres and networks, in order to enhance the implementation of adaptation actions, in particular in developing country Parties;

(d)                          Providing information and recommendations, drawing on adaptation good practices, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties when providing guidance on means to incentivize the implementation of adaptation actions, including finance, technology and capacity-building and other ways to enable climate-resilient development and reduce vulnerability, including to the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, as appropriate;

(e)                           Considering information communicated by Parties on their monitoring and review of adaptation actions, support provided and received, possible needs and gaps and other relevant information, including information communicated under the Convention, with a view to recommending what further actions may be required, as appropriate;

  1. 21. Invites Parties to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, views on the composition of, and modalities and procedures for, the Adaptation Committee, including on proposed linkages with other relevant institutional arrangements;
  2. 22. Requests the secretariat to compile these submissions into a miscellaneous document, to be made available by the fourteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, and to prepare a synthesis report based on those submissions by the fourteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention;
  3. 23. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, taking into account the above-mentioned submissions and synthesis report, to elaborate the composition of, and modalities and procedures for, the Adaptation Committee, for adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;
  4. 24. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, in elaborating the above-mentioned modalities and procedures, to define, as appropriate, linkages with other relevant institutional arrangements under and outside the Convention, including at the national and regional levels;
  5. 25. Recognizes the need to strengthen international cooperation and expertise in order to understand and reduce loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset events;3
  6. 26. Decides to hereby establish a work programme in order to consider, including through workshops and expert meetings, as appropriate, approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;
  7. 27. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to agree on activities to be undertaken under the above-mentioned work programme;
  8. 28. Invites Parties and relevant organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, views and information on what elements should be included in the work programme, including the following:

3 Including sea level rise, increasing temperatures, ocean acidification, glacial retreat and related impacts, salinization, land and forest degradation, loss of biodiversity and desertification.

 

(a)            Possible development of a climate risk insurance facility to address impacts associated with severe weather events;

(b)            Options for risk management and reduction, risk sharing and transfer mechanisms such as insurance, including options for micro-insurance, and resilience- building, including through economic diversification;

(c)            Approaches for addressing rehabilitation measures associated with slow onset events;

(d)            Engagement of stakeholders with relevant specialized expertise;

  1. 29. Requests the secretariat to compile these submissions into a miscellaneous document and to prepare a synthesis report based on those submissions, to be made available for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at its thirty-fourth session, and with a view to making recommendations on loss and damage to the Conference of the Parties for its consideration at its eighteenth session;
  2. 30. Invites Parties to strengthen and, where necessary, establish regional centres and networks, in particular in developing countries, with support from developed country Parties and relevant organizations, as appropriate, and to facilitate and enhance national and regional adaptation actions, in a manner that is country-driven, encourages cooperation and coordination between regional stakeholders and improves the flow of information between the Convention process and national and regional activities;
  3. 31. Notes that an international centre to enhance adaptation research and coordination could also be established in a developing country;
  4. 32. Invites all Parties to strengthen and, where necessary, establish and/or designate national-level institutional arrangements, with a view to enhancing work on the full range of adaptation actions, from planning to implementation;
  5. 33. Decides that all Parties should use existing channels to provide information, as appropriate, on support provided and received for adaptation actions in developing countries and on activities undertaken, including, inter alia, progress made, experiences, lessons learned, and challenges and gaps in the delivery of support, with a view to ensuring transparency and accountability and encouraging best practices;
  6. 34. Invites relevant multilateral, international, regional and national organizations, the public and private sectors, civil society and other relevant stakeholders to undertake and support enhanced action on adaptation at all levels, including under the Cancun Adaptation Framework, as appropriate, in a coherent and integrated manner, building on synergies among activities and processes, and to make information available on the progress made;
  7. 35. Requests the secretariat to support the implementation of the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including related institutional arrangements under the Convention, in accordance with its mandate and subject to the availability of resources;

III. Enhanced action on mitigation

A. Nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions by developed country Parties

Emphasizing the need for deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions and early and urgent undertakings to accelerate and enhance the implementation of the Convention by all Parties, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities,

 

Acknowledging that the largest share of historical global emissions of greenhouse gases originated in developed countries and that, owing to this historical responsibility, developed country Parties must take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof,

36.Takes note of quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets to be

implemented by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention as communicated by them and contained in document FCCC/SB/201 1/INF. 14 (to be issued);

37. Urges developed country Parties to increase the ambition of their economy-wide

emission reduction targets, with a view to reducing their aggregate anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol to a level consistent with the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;

38.   Requests the secretariat to organize workshops to clarify the assumptions and the

conditions related to the attainment of these targets, including the use of carbon credits from the market-based mechanisms and land use, land-use change and forestry activities, and options and ways to increase their level of ambition;

39. Also requests the secretariat to prepare a technical paper based on Parties’

submissions with the aim of facilitating understanding of the assumptions and conditions related to the attainment of their emission reduction targets and a comparison of the level of emission reduction efforts;

40. Decides, building on existing reporting and review guidelines, processes and

experiences, to enhance reporting in the national communications of Parties included in Annex I to the Convention on mitigation targets and on the provision of financial, technological and capacity-building support to developing country Parties as follows:

(a)            Developed countries should submit annual greenhouse gas inventories and inventory reports and biennial reports on their progress in achieving emission reductions, including information on mitigation actions to achieve their quantified economy-wide emission targets and emission reductions achieved, projected emissions and the provision of financial, technology and capacity-building support to developing country Parties;

(b)            Developed countries shall submit supplementary information on the achievement of quantified economy-wide emission reductions;

(c)            Developed countries shall improve the reporting of information on the provision of financial, technology and capacity-building support to developing country Parties;

41. Also decides to enhance the guidelines for the reporting of information in national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, including the development of common reporting formats and methodology for finance, in order to ensure that information provided is complete, comparable, transparent and accurate;

42.  Further decides to enhance guidelines for the review of information in national

communications with respect to the following:

(a)            Progress made in achieving emission reductions;

(b)            Provision of financial, technology and capacity-building support to developing country Parties;

4 Parties’ communications to the secretariat that are included in the information document are considered communications under the Convention.

 

43.     Decides that developed countries should establish national arrangements for the

estimation of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol;

44.    Also decides to establish a process for international assessment of emissions and

removals related to quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets under the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, taking into account national circumstances, in a rigorous, robust and transparent manner, with a view to promoting comparability and building confidence;

45. Further decides that developed countries should develop low-carbon development strategies or plans;

46. Decides on the following work programme for the development of modalities and guidelines described above, building on existing reporting and review guidelines, processes and experiences:

(a)       The revision of guidelines, as necessary, on the reporting of national

communications, including the biennial report:

(i)        The provision of financing, through enhanced common reporting formats, methodologies for finance and tracking of climate-related support;

(ii)       Supplementary information on achievement of quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets;

(iii)       Information on national inventory arrangements;

(b)        The revision of guidelines for the review of national communications,

including the biennial report, annual greenhouse gas inventories and national inventory systems;

(c)    The establishment of guidelines for national inventory arrangements;

(d)    Modalities and procedures for international assessment and review of

emissions and removals related to quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets in accordance with paragraph 44 above, including the role of land use, land-use change and forestry, and carbon credits from market-based mechanisms, taking into account international experience;

47. Invites Parties to submit views on the items mentioned in paragraph 46 above,

including with respect to the initial scheduling of the processes described in this section, by 28 March 2011;

B. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties

Recognizing that developing country Parties are already contributing and will continue to contribute to a global mitigation effort in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, and could enhance their mitigation actions, depending on provision of finance, technology and capacity-building support by developed country Parties,

Reaffirming that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing country Parties, and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs,

48.   Agrees that developing country Parties will take nationally appropriate mitigation

actions in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology,

 

financing and capacity-building, aimed at achieving a deviation in emissions relative to ‘business as usual’ emissions in 2020;

49.     Takes note of nationally appropriate mitigation actions to be implemented by Parties

not included in Annex I to the Convention as communicated by them and contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/201 1/INF.15 (to be issued);

50. Invites developing countries that wish to voluntarily inform the Conference of the

Parties of their intention to implement nationally appropriate mitigation actions in association with this decision to submit information on those actions to the secretariat;

51. Requests the secretariat to organize workshops to understand the diversity of

mitigation actions submitted, underlying assumptions and any support needed for the implementation of these actions, noting different national circumstances and the respective capabilities of developing country Parties;

52. Decides that, in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 3, of the Convention,

developed country Parties shall provide enhanced financial, technological and capacity- building support for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing country Parties and for enhanced reporting by these Parties;

53.Also decides to set up a registry to record nationally appropriate mitigation actions

seeking international support and to facilitate matching of finance, technology and capacity-building support for these actions;

54.   Invites developing country Parties to submit to the secretariat information on

nationally appropriate mitigation actions for which they are seeking support, along with estimated costs and emission reductions, and the anticipated time frame for implementation;

55     Also invites developed country Parties to submit to the secretariat information on

support available and provided for nationally appropriate mitigation actions;

56. Requests the secretariat to record and regularly update in the registry the information

provided by Parties on:

(a)            Nationally appropriate mitigation actions seeking international support;

(b)            Support available from developed country Parties for these actions;

(c)            Support provided for nationally appropriate mitigation actions;

57.     Agrees to develop modalities for the facilitation of support through the registry

referred to in paragraph 53 above, including any functional relationship with the financial mechanism;

58.    Decides to recognize nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing

countries in a separate section of the registry;

59.Requests the secretariat to record, and regularly update, in a separate section of the

registry, information submitted by Parties on the following:

(a)            Mitigation actions contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/201 1/INF. 1;

(b)            Additional mitigation actions submitted in association with paragraph 50 above;

5 Parties’ communications to the secretariat that are included in the information document are considered communications under the Convention.

 

(c)     Once support has been provided, internationally supported mitigation actions

and associated support;

60.   Decides to enhance reporting in national communications, including inventories,

from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention on mitigation actions and their effects, and support received, with additional flexibility to be given to the least developed country Parties and small island developing States:

(a)            The content and frequency of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention will not be more onerous than that for Parties included in Annex I to the Convention;

(b)            Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention should submit their national communications to the Conference of the Parties, in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 1, of the Convention, every four years or in accordance with any further decisions on frequency by the Conference of the Parties, taking into account a differentiated timetable and the prompt provision of financial resources to cover the agreed full costs incurred by Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention in preparing their national communications;

(c)            Developing countries, consistent with their capabilities and the level of support provided for reporting, should also submit biennial update reports containing updates of national greenhouse gas inventories, including a national inventory report and information on mitigation actions, needs and support received;

61.   Also decides that internationally supported mitigation actions will be measured,

reported and verified domestically and will be subject to international measurement, reporting and verification in accordance with guidelines to be developed under the Convention;

62.  Further decides that domestically supported mitigation actions will be measured,

reported and verified domestically in accordance with general guidelines to be developed under the Convention;

63. Decides to conduct international consultations and analysis of biennial reports under

the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, in a manner that is non-intrusive, non-punitive and respectful of national sovereignty; the international consultations and analysis will aim to increase transparency of mitigation actions and their effects, through analysis by technical experts in consultation with the Party concerned and through a facilitative sharing of views, and will result in a summary report;

64. Also decides that information considered should include the national greenhouse gas

inventory report, information on mitigation actions, including a description, analysis of the impacts and associated methodologies and assumptions, progress in implementation and information on domestic measurement, reporting and verification, and support received; discussion about the appropriateness of such domestic policies and measures is not part of the process; discussions should be intended to provide transparency of information related to unsupported actions;

65. Encourages developing countries to develop low-carbon development strategies or

plans in the context of sustainable development;

66. Agrees on a work programme for the development of modalities and guidelines for: facilitation of support to nationally appropriate mitigation actions through a registry; measurement, reporting and verification of supported actions and corresponding support; biennial reports as part of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention; domestic verification of mitigation actions undertaken with domestic resources; and international consultations and analysis;

 

67.   Invites Parties to submit views on the items mentioned in paragraph 66 above,

including with respect to the initial scheduling of the processes described in this section, by 28 March 2011;

C. Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of

forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries

Affirming that, in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support to developing country Parties, Parties should collectively aim to slow, halt and reverse forest cover and carbon loss, in accordance with national circumstances, consistent with the ultimate objective of the Convention, as stated in Article 2,

Also affirming the need to promote broad country participation in all phases described in paragraph 73 below, including through the provision of support that takes into account existing capacities,

68.  Encourages all Parties to find effective ways to reduce the human pressure on

forests that results in greenhouse gas emissions, including actions to address drivers of deforestation;

69.Affirms that the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 below

should be carried out in accordance with appendix I to this decision, and that the safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision should be promoted and supported;

70.  Encourages developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the

forest sector by undertaking the following activities, as deemed appropriate by each Party and in accordance with their respective capabilities and national circumstances:

(a)       Reducing emissions from deforestation;

(b)       Reducing emissions from forest degradation;

(c)       Conservation of forest carbon stocks;

(d)       Sustainable management of forests;

(e)       Enhancement of forest carbon stocks;

71.    Requests developing country Parties aiming to undertake the activities referred to in

paragraph 70 above, in the context of the provision of adequate and predictable support, including financial resources and technical and technological support to developing country Parties, in accordance with national circumstances and respective capabilities, to develop the following elements:

(a)       A national strategy or action plan;

(b)       A national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level6 or, if appropriate, as an interim measure, subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with national circumstances, and with provisions contained in decision 4/CP. 15, and with any further elaboration of those provisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties;

6 In accordance with national circumstances, national forest reference emission levels and/or forest

reference levels could be a combination of subnational forest reference emissions levels and/or forest reference levels.

 

(c)            A robust and transparent national forest monitoring system for the monitoring and reporting of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, with, if appropriate, subnational monitoring and reporting as an interim measure,7 in accordance with national circumstances, and with the provisions contained in decision 4/CP.15, and with any further elaboration of those provisions agreed by the Conference of the Parties;

(d)            A system for providing information on how the safeguards referred to in appendix I to this decision are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, while respecting sovereignty;

  1. 72. Also requests developing country Parties, when developing and implementing their national strategies or action plans, to address, inter alia, the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, land tenure issues, forest governance issues, gender considerations and the safeguards identified in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision, ensuring the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, inter alia indigenous peoples and local communities;
  2. 73. Decides that the activities undertaken by Parties referred to in paragraph 70 above should be implemented in phases, beginning with the development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures, and capacity-building, followed by the implementation of national policies and measures and national strategies or action plans that could involve further capacity-building, technology development and transfer and results-based demonstration activities, and evolving into results-based actions that should be fully measured, reported and verified;
  3. 74. Recognizes that the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, including the choice of a starting phase as referred to in paragraph 73 above, depends on the specific national circumstances, capacities and capabilities of each developing country Party and the level of support received;
  4. 75. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop a work programme on the matters referred to in appendix II to this decision;
  5. 76. Urges Parties, in particular developed country Parties, to support, through multilateral and bilateral channels, the development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures and capacity-building, followed by the implementation of national policies and measures and national strategies or action plans that could involve further capacity-building, technology development and transfer and results-based demonstration activities, including consideration of the safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 of appendix I to this decision, taking into account the relevant provisions on finance including those relating to reporting on support;
  6. 77. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to explore financing options for the full implementation of the results-based actions8 referred to in paragraph 73 above and to report on progress made, including any recommendations for draft decisions on this matter, to the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;
  7. 78. Also requests Parties to ensure coordination of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 above, including of the related support, particularly at the national level;

7 Including monitoring and reporting of emissions displacement at the national level, if appropriate, and reporting on how displacement of emissions is being addressed, and on the means to integrate subnational monitoring systems into a national monitoring system.

8 These actions require national monitoring systems.

 

79.  Invites relevant international organizations and stakeholders to contribute to the

activities referred to in paragraphs 70 and 78 above;

D. Various approaches, including opportunities for using markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries

Acknowledging the need to maintain consistency with the principles of the Convention,

Emphasizing the importance of contributing to sustainable development, including through technology transfer and other co-benefits,

Recognizing the importance of enhancing sustainable lifestyles and patterns of production and consumption,

Aware of the need to provide incentives in support of low-emission development strategies,

80.  Decides to consider the establishment, at the seventeenth session of the Conference

of the Parties, of one or more market-based mechanisms to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, taking into account the following:

(a)            Ensuring voluntary participation of Parties, supported by the promotion of fair and equitable access for all Parties;

(b)            Complementing other means of support for nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties;

(c)            Stimulating mitigation across broad segments of the economy;

(d)            Safeguarding environmental integrity;

(e)            Ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions;

(f)             Assisting developed country Parties to meet part of their mitigation targets, while ensuring that the use of such a mechanism or mechanisms is supplemental to domestic mitigation efforts;

(g)            Ensuring good governance and robust market functioning and regulation;

81. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to elaborate the mechanism or mechanisms referred to in paragraph 80 above, with a view to recommending a draft decision or decisions to the Conference of the Parties for consideration at its seventeenth session;

82.   Invites Parties and accredited observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by

21 February 2011, their views on the matters referred to in paragraph 81 above;

83.  Undertakes, in developing and implementing the mechanism or mechanisms

referred to in paragraph 80 above, to maintain and build upon existing mechanisms, including those established under the Kyoto Protocol;

84.    Decides to consider the establishment, at the seventeenth session of the Conference

of the Parties, of one or more non-market-based mechanisms to enhance the cost- effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions;

 

  1. 85. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to elaborate the mechanism or mechanisms referred to in paragraph 84 above, with a view to recommending a draft decision or decisions to the Conference of the Parties for consideration at its seventeenth session;
  2. 86. Invites Parties and accredited observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, their views on the matters referred to in paragraph 85 above;
  3. 87. Also invites Parties and accredited observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 21 February 2011, information on the evaluation of various approaches in enhancing the cost-effectiveness of, and promoting, mitigation actions, including activities implemented jointly under Article 4, paragraph 2(a), of the Convention and any other relevant activities, for synthesis by the secretariat;

E. Economic and social consequences of response measures

Reaffirming the importance of the objective of the Convention, and the relevant principles and provisions of the Convention related to economic and social consequences of response measures, in particular its Articles 2, 3 and 4,

Recognizing that the implementation of response measures to mitigate climate change taken by a Party may result in negative economic and social consequences for other Parties, and the need to take into consideration in the implementation of the commitments of the Convention the situation of Parties, particularly developing country Parties, with economies that are vulnerable to the adverse impact of the implementation of measures to respond to climate change, referred to in Article 4, paragraphs 8, 9 and 10, of the Convention,

Affirming that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner, with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking fully into account the legitimate priority needs of developing country Parties for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty, and the consequences for vulnerable groups, in particular women and children,

Recognizing the importance of avoiding or minimizing negative impacts of response measures on social and economic sectors, promoting a just transition of the workforce, the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities and strategies, and contributing to building new capacity for both production and service-related jobs in all sectors, promoting economic growth and sustainable development,

Taking note of relevant provisions of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,

  1. 88. Urges Parties, in the implementation of measures to mitigate climate change, to take into consideration the economic and social impacts of response measures and the needs of Parties, in particular developing country Parties, impacted by response measures, consistent with relevant provisions of the Convention;
  2. 89. Also urges developed country Parties to strive to implement policies and measures to respond to climate change in such a way as to avoid negative social and economic consequences for developing country Parties, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention, and to assist these Parties to address such consequences by providing support, including financial resources, transfer of technology and capacity-building, in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention, to build up the resilience of societies and economies negatively affected by response measures;
  3. 90. Reaffirms that the Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change; measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade;
  4. 91. Agrees that information relating to response measures should be considered in a structured manner in order to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 1(g) and (h), of the Convention, recognizing the needs of developing country Parties identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8, 9 and 10;
  5. 92. Decides that Parties should cooperate fully to enhance understanding of the economic and social consequences of response measures, taking into account the need for information from those affected, and evidence of actual impacts, and of both positive and negative effects; and further decides to consider how existing channels, such as national communications, including the possible submission of supplementary information, as considered by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, could be improved and built upon;
  6. 93. Further decides to provide a forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures, and to that end requests the Chairs of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to convene such a forum at the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth sessions of these bodies, with the objective of developing a work programme under the subsidiary bodies to address these impacts, with a view to adopting, at the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties, modalities for the operationalization of the work programme and a possible forum on response measures;
  7. 94. Invites Parties and relevant intergovernmental organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 28 March 2011, their views on the issues referred to in paragraph 93 above for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation at their thirty-fourth sessions;

 

IV. Finance, technology and capacity-building A. Finance

  1. 95. Takes note of the collective commitment by developed countries to provide new and additional resources, including forestry and investments through international institutions, approaching USD 30 billion for the period 2010–2012, with a balanced allocation between adaptation and mitigation; funding for adaptation will be prioritized for the most vulnerable developing countries, such as the least developed countries, small island developing States and Africa;
  2. 96. Invites, in order to enhance transparency, developed country Parties to submit to the secretariat for compilation into an information document, by May 2011, 2012 and 2013, information on the resources provided to fulfil the commitment referred to in paragraph 95 above, including ways in which developing country Parties access these resources;
  3. 97. Decides that, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, scaled- up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding shall be provided to developing country Parties, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;
  4. 98. Recognizes that developed country Parties commit, in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries;
  5. 99. Agrees that, in accordance with paragraph 1(e) of the Bali Action Plan, funds provided to developing country Parties may come from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources;
  6. 100. Decides that a significant share of new multilateral funding for adaptation should flow through the Green Climate Fund, referred to in paragraph 102 below;
  7. 101. Takes note of the relevant reports on the financing needs and options for the mobilization of resources to address the needs of developing country Parties with regard to climate change adaptation and mitigation, including the report of the High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing;
  8. 102. Decides to establish a Green Climate Fund, to be designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention under Article 11, with arrangements to be concluded between the Conference of the Parties and the Green Climate Fund to ensure that it is accountable to and functions under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, to support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties using thematic funding windows;
  9. 103. Also decides that the Fund shall be governed by a Board of 24 members, comprising an equal number of members from developing and developed country Parties; representation from developing country Parties shall include representatives of relevant United Nations regional groupings and representatives of small island developing States and the least developed countries; each Board member shall have an alternate member; with alternate members entitled to participate in the meetings of the board only through the principal member, without the right to vote, unless they are serving as the member; during the absence of the member from all or part of a meeting of the Board, his or her alternate shall serve as the member;
  10. 104. Further decides that the Green Climate Fund shall have a trustee; the trustee for the Green Climate Fund shall have the administrative competence to manage the financial assets of the Green Climate Fund, maintain appropriate financial records and prepare financial statements and other reports required by the Board of the Green Climate Fund, in accordance with internationally accepted fiduciary standards;
  11. 105. Decides that the trustee shall administer the assets of the Green Climate Fund only for the purpose of, and in accordance with, the relevant decisions of the Green Climate Fund Board; the trustee shall hold the assets of the Green Climate Fund separate and apart from the assets of the trustee, but may commingle them for administrative and investment purposes with other assets maintained by the trustee; and the trustee shall establish and maintain separate records and accounts to identify the assets of the Green Climate Fund;
  12. 106. Decides that the trustee shall be accountable to the Green Climate Fund Board for the performance of its fiduciary responsibilities;
  13. 107. Invites the World Bank to serve as the interim trustee for the Green Climate Fund, subject to a review three years after operationalization of the Fund;
  14. 108. Decides that the operation of the Fund shall be supported by an independent secretariat;
  15. 109. Also decides that the Green Climate Fund shall be designed by a Transitional Committee in accordance with the terms of reference contained in appendix III to this decision; the Transitional Committee shall have 40 members, with 15 members from developed country Parties and 25 members from developing country Parties as follows:

 

 

(a)       Seven members from Africa;

(b)       Seven members from Asia;

(c)       Seven members from Group of Latin America and the Caribbean;

(d)       Two members from small island developing States;

(e)       Two members from the least developed countries;

  1. 110. Invites the Executive Secretary of the secretariat, in consultation with the President of the Conference of the Parties, to convene the initial meeting of the Transitional Committee, with members having the necessary experience and skills, notably in the area of finance and climate change; the meetings of the Transitional Committee will be open to observers;
  2. 111. Requests the secretariat, in consultation with the President of the Conference of the Parties, to make arrangements enabling relevant United Nations agencies, international financial institutions and multilateral development banks, along with the secretariat and the Global Environment Facility, to second staff to support the work of the Transitional Committee for the design phase of the Green Climate Fund;
  3. 112. Decides to establish a Standing Committee under the Conference of the Parties to assist the Conference of the Parties in exercising its functions with respect to the financial mechanism of the Convention in terms of improving coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing, rationalization of the financial mechanism, mobilization of financial resources and measurement, reporting and verification of support provided to developing country Parties; Parties agree to further define the roles and functions of this Standing Committee;

B. Technology development and transfer

Recalling the commitments under the Convention, in particular Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9,

Confirming the importance of promoting and enhancing national and international cooperative action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing country Parties to support action on mitigation and adaptation now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention,

Recognizing that an early and rapid reduction in emissions and the urgent need to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change require large-scale diffusion and transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies,

Stressing the need for effective mechanisms, enhanced means, appropriate enabling environments and the removal of obstacles to the scaling up of the development and transfer of technology to developing country Parties,

  1. 113. Decides that the objective of enhanced action on technology development and transfer is to support action on mitigation and adaptation in order to achieve the full implementation of the Convention;
  2. 114. Also decides that, in pursuit of this objective, technology needs must be nationally determined, based on national circumstances and priorities;
  3. 115. Further decides to accelerate action consistent with international obligations, at different stages of the technology cycle, including research and development, demonstration, deployment, diffusion and transfer of technology (hereinafter referred in

 

this decision as technology development and transfer) in support of action on mitigation and adaptation;

116. Encourages Parties, in the context of Article 4, paragraphs 1(c) and 5, of the Convention and consistent with their respective capabilities and national circumstances and priorities, to undertake domestic actions identified through country-driven approaches, to engage in bilateral and multilateral cooperative activities on technology development and transfer and to increase private and public research, development and demonstration in relation to technologies for mitigation and adaptation;

117. Decides to establish a Technology Mechanism to facilitate the implementation of actions for achieving the objective referred to in paragraphs 113–115 above, under the guidance of and accountable to the Conference of the Parties, which will consist of the following components:

(a)   A Technology Executive Committee, to undertake the functions contained in paragraph 121 below;

(b)A Climate Technology Centre and Network, to undertake the functions contained in paragraph 123 below;

118. Also decides that the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, consistent with their respective functions, should facilitate the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism, under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties;

119. Further decides that the Technology Executive Committee shall further implement the framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention adopted by decision 4/CP.7 and enhanced by decision 3/CP.13;

120. Decides that priority areas that could be considered under the Convention may include:

(a) Development and enhancement of the endogenous capacities and technologies of developing country Parties, including cooperative research, development and demonstration programmes;

(b) Deployment and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies and know- how in developing country Parties;

(c)  Increased public and private investment in technology development, deployment, diffusion and transfer;

(d) Deployment of soft and hard technologies for the implementation of adaptation and mitigation actions;

(e)  Improved climate change observation systems and related information management;

(f) Strengthening of national systems of innovation and technology innovation centres;

(g)  Development and implementation of national technology plans for mitigation and adaptation;

121. Also decides that the functions of the Technology Executive Committee shall be to:

(a)    Provide an overview of technological needs and analysis of policy and

technical issues related to the development and transfer of technologies for mitigation and adaptation;

 

(b) Consider and recommend actions to promote technology development and transfer, in order to accelerate action on mitigation and adaptation;

(c)  Recommend guidance on policies and programme priorities related to technology development and transfer with special consideration given to the least developed country Parties;

(d) Promote and facilitate collaboration on the development and transfer of technologies for mitigation and adaptation between governments, the private sector, non­profit organizations and academic and research communities;

(e)Recommend actions to address the barriers to technology development and transfer in order to enable enhanced action on mitigation and adaptation;

(f) Seek cooperation with relevant international technology initiatives, stakeholders and organizations, and promote coherence and cooperation across technology activities, including activities under and outside of the Convention;

(g)  Catalyse the development and use of technology road maps or action plans at the international, regional and national levels through cooperation between relevant stakeholders, particularly governments and relevant organizations or bodies, including the development of best practice guidelines as facilitative tools for action on mitigation and adaptation;

  1. 122. Further decides that the Technology Executive Committee shall have the mandate and composition as contained in appendix IV to this decision;
  2. 123. Decides that the Climate Technology Centre shall facilitate a network of national, regional, sectoral and international technology networks, organizations and initiatives with a view to engaging the participants of the Network effectively in the following functions:

(a) At the request of a developing country Party:

(i)  Providing advice and support related to the identification of technology needs and the implementation of environmentally sound technologies, practices and processes;

(ii)Facilitating the provision of information, training and support for programmes to build or strengthen capacity of developing countries to identify technology options, make technology choices and operate, maintain and adapt technology;

(iii) Facilitating prompt action on the deployment of existing technology in developing country Parties based on identified needs;

(b) Stimulating and encouraging, through collaboration with the private sector,

public institutions, academia and research institutions, the development and transfer of existing and emerging environmentally sound technologies, as well as opportunities for North–South, South–South and triangular technology cooperation;

(c) Facilitating a network of national, regional, sectoral and international

technology centres, networks, organization and initiatives with a view to:

(i) Enhancing cooperation with national, regional and international technology centres and relevant national institutions;

(ii)  Facilitating international partnerships among public and private stakeholders to accelerate the innovation and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing country Parties;

 

(iii)Providing, at the request of a developing country Party, in-country technical assistance and training to support identified technology actions in developing country Parties;

(iv) Stimulating the establishment of twinning centre arrangements to promote North–South, South–South and triangular partnerships, with a view to encouraging cooperative research and development;

(v)  Identifying, disseminating and assisting with developing analytical tools, policies and best practices for country-driven planning to support the dissemination of environmentally sound technologies;

(d)   Performing other such activities as may be necessary to carry out its

functions;

  1. 124. Also decides to terminate the mandate of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer at the conclusion of the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties;
  2. 125. Further decides that the Technology Executive Committee shall convene its first meeting as soon as practicable following the election of its members and shall elaborate its modalities and procedures taking into account the need to achieve coherence and maintain interactions with other relevant institutional arrangements under and outside of the Convention, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;
  3. 126. Decides that the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network shall report, on an interim basis9 and without prejudice to the relationship between the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network as referred to in paragraph 128 (a) below to the Conference of the Parties, through the subsidiary bodies, on their respective activities and the performance of their respective functions;
  4. 127. Also decides that the Climate Technology Centre and Network and the Technology Executive Committee shall relate so as to promote coherence and synergy;

Work programme for the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention in 2011 on technology development and transfer

  1. 128. Underlines the importance of continued dialogue among Parties in 2011 through the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, including on the following matters, with a view to the Conference of the Parties taking a decision at its seventeenth session, in order to make the Technology Mechanism fully operational in 2012:

(a) The relationship between the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, and their reporting lines;

(b) The governance structure of and terms of reference for the Climate Technology Centre and Network and how the Climate Technology Centre will relate to the Network, drawing upon the results of the workshop referred to in paragraph 129 below;

(c) The procedure for calls for proposals and the criteria to be used to evaluate and select the host of the Climate Technology Centre and Network;

(d)  The potential links between the Technology Mechanism and the financial mechanism;

(e) Consideration of additional functions for the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network;

9 Until there is a decision on the issues contained in paragraph 128 (a) below.

 

129. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to convene an expert workshop, in conjunction with one of its sessions in 2011, on the matters contained in paragraph 128 above, drawing upon the preliminary work undertaken by the Expert Group on Technology Transfer, and to report on the results of this workshop at that session;

C. Capacity-building

Reaffirming that capacity-building is essential to enable developing country Parties to participate fully in addressing the challenges of climate change, and to implement effectively their commitments under the Convention,

Recalling the provisions related to capacity-building for developing country Parties contained in relevant decisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties, especially decision 2/CP.7,

Taking into account that the scope of capacity-building and related needs as contained in the annex to decision 2/CP.7 and the key factors identified in decision 2/CP.10 remain valid,

Acknowledging that capacity-building is cross-cutting in nature and an integral part of enhanced action on mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer, and access to financial resources,

Also acknowledging that, in addition, there may be specific capacity-building activities that require support to enable developing countries to undertake the enhanced implementation of the Convention,

Reaffirming that capacity-building should be a continuous, progressive and iterative process that is participatory, country-driven and consistent with national priorities and circumstances,

130. Decides that capacity-building support to developing country Parties should be enhanced with a view to strengthening endogenous capacities at the subnational, national or regional levels, as appropriate, taking into account gender aspects, to contribute to the achievement of the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention, by, inter alia:

(a)  Strengthening relevant institutions at various levels, including focal points and national coordinating bodies and organizations;

(b)  Strengthening networks for the generation, sharing and management of information and knowledge, including through North–South, South–South and triangular cooperation;

(c)   Strengthening climate change communication, education, training and public awareness at all levels;

(d) Strengthening integrated approaches and the participation of various stakeholders in relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions;

(e)  Supporting existing and emerging capacity-building needs identified in the areas of mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer, and access to financial resources;

131. Also decides that financial resources for enhanced action on capacity-building in
developing country Parties should be provided by Parties included in Annex II to the
Convention and other Parties in a position to do so through the current and any future

 

operating entities of the financial mechanism, as well as through various bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels, as appropriate;

  1. 132. Encourages developed country Parties to continue to report through their national communications, in accordance with the “Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, Part II: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on national communications”, on the support they have provided for capacity-building in developing country Parties;
  2. 133. Invites developed country Parties in a position to do so to provide information, through annual submissions to the secretariat and other appropriate channels, on the support they have provided for capacity-building in developing country Parties;
  3. 134. Encourages developing country Parties to continue to report through their national communications, in accordance with the “Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention”, on progress made in enhancing their capacity to address climate change, including on the use of the support received;
  4. 135. Invites developing country Parties in a position to do so to provide information, through annual submissions to the secretariat and other appropriate channels, on progress made in enhancing their capacity to address climate change, including on the use of the support received;
  5. 136. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to consider ways to further enhance the monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;
  6. 137. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to further elaborate the modalities regarding institutional arrangements for capacity-building, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;

V. Review

  1. 138. Decides to periodically review the adequacy of the long-term global goal referred to in paragraph 4 above, in the light of the ultimate objective of the Convention, and overall progress towards achieving it, in accordance with the relevant principles and provisions of the Convention;
  2. Also decides that:

(a) his review should be guided by the principles of equity, and common but

differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and take into account, inter alia:

(i)   The best available scientific knowledge, including the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;

(ii)   Observed impacts of climate change;

(iii)  An assessment of the overall aggregated effect of the steps taken by Parties in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention;

(iv)Consideration of strengthening the long-term global goal, referencing various matters presented by the science, including in relation to temperature rises of 1.5 °C;

(b)   The first review should start in 2013 and should be concluded by 2015;

 

(c)  The Conference of the Parties shall take appropriate action based on the

review;

  1. 140. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to further define the scope of this review and develop its modalities, including the required inputs, with a view to their adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session;

VI. Other matters

Parties included in Annex I to the Convention undergoing the process of transition to a market economy

Recalling Article 4, paragraph 6, of the Convention and relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, especially decisions 3/CP.7 and 3/CP.13 relating to Parties included in Annex I to the Convention undergoing the process of transition to a market economy,

Noting that Parties included in Annex I to the Convention undergoing the process of transition to a market economy are not included in Annex II to the Convention and as such are not subject to the provisions of Article 4, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Convention,

Recalling that Article 4, paragraph 6, of the Convention provides that a certain degree of flexibility shall be allowed by the Conference of the Parties to Parties included in Annex I to the Convention undergoing the process of transition to a market economy,

Taking note of the submissions from Parties contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/201 0/MISC.6/Add.2,

  1. 141. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to continue consideration of these issues with a view to promoting access by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention undergoing the process of transition to a market economy to technology, capacity-building and finance in order to enhance their ability to develop low-emission economies;

Parties included in Annex I to the Convention whose special circumstances are recognized by the Conference of the Parties

Recalling decision 26/CP.7 that amended the list in Annex II to the Convention by deleting the name of Turkey,

Recalling decision 26/CP.7 that invited Parties to recognize the special circumstances of Turkey, which place Turkey in a situation different from that of other Parties included in Annex I to the Convention,

Recognizing that Turkey is in a situation different from that of other Parties included in Annex I to the Convention,

Noting that Turkey is not included in Annex II to the Convention and as such is not subject to the commitments of Article 4, paragraphs 3–5, of the Convention and that Turkey is eligible for support under Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention,

Taking note of the submission from Turkey contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/201 0/MISC.8,

  1. 142. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to continue consideration of these issues with a view to promoting access by Turkey to finance, technology and capacity-building in order to enhance its ability to better implement the Convention;

 

VII. Extension of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention

  1. 143. Decides to extend the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention for one year, in order for it to continue its work with a view to carrying out the undertakings contained in this decision and present the results to the Conference of the Parties for consideration at its seventeenth session;
  2. 144. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to continue its work drawing on the documents under its consideration;
  3. 145. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to continue discussing legal options with the aim of completing an agreed outcome based on decision 1/CP. 13 (Bali Action Plan), the work done at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties and proposals made by Parties under Article 17 of the Convention;
  4. 146. Further requests the secretariat to make the necessary arrangements in accordance with any guidance from the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties;
  5. 147. Mandates the host country of the next session of the Conference of the Parties to undertake inclusive and transparent consultations in order to facilitate the work towards the success of that session.

 

Appendix I

Guidance and safeguards for policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries

1.     The activities referred to in paragraph 70 of this decision should:

(a)  Contribute to the achievement of the objective set out in Article 2 of the Convention;

(b)  Contribute to the fulfilment of the commitments set out in Article 4, paragraph 3, of the Convention;

(c)   Be country-driven and be considered options available to Parties;

(d)   Be consistent with the objective of environmental integrity and take into account the multiple functions of forests and other ecosystems;

(e)  Be undertaken in accordance with national development priorities, objectives and circumstances and capabilities and should respect sovereignty;

(f)   Be consistent with Parties’ national sustainable development needs and goals;

(g)  Be implemented in the context of sustainable development and reducing poverty, while responding to climate change;

(h) Be consistent with the adaptation needs of the country;

(i) Be supported by adequate and predictable financial and technology support, including support for capacity-building;

(j)   Be results-based;

(k)  Promote sustainable management of forests;

2.                                                        When undertaking the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of this decision, the

following safeguards should be promoted and supported:

(a)  That actions complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements;

(b) Transparent and effective national forest governance structures, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty;

(c)   Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities, by taking into account relevant international obligations, national circumstances and laws, and noting that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;

(d)   The full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, in particular indigenous peoples and local communities, in the actions referred to in paragraphs 70 and 72 of this decision;

(e)  That actions are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity, ensuring that the actions referred to in paragraph 70 of this decision are not used for the conversion of natural forests, but are instead used to incentivize the

 

protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, and to enhance other social and environmental benefits;1

(f)        Actions to address the risks of reversals;

(g)       Actions to reduce displacement of emissions.

1 Taking into account the need for sustainable livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities and their interdependence on forests in most countries, reflected in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, as well as the International Mother Earth Day.

 

Appendix II

Work programme of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice on policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries

In the development of its work programme, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice is requested to:

(a) Identify land use, land-use change and forestry activities in developing countries, in particular those that are linked to the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, identify the associated methodological issues to estimate emissions and removals resulting from these activities, and assess the potential contribution of these activities to the mitigation of climate change, and report on the findings and outcomes of this work to the Conference of the Parties (COP) at its eighteenth session on the outcomes of the work referred to in this paragraph;

(b)  Develop modalities relating to paragraphs 71 (b) and (c) and guidance relating to paragraph 71 (d) of this decision, for consideration by the COP at its seventeenth session;

(c)  Develop, as necessary, modalities for measuring, reporting and verifying anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks, forest carbon stocks, and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes resulting from the implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of this decision, consistent with any guidance on measuring, reporting and verifying nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties agreed by the COP, taking into account methodological guidance in accordance with decision 4/CP.15, for consideration by the COP at its seventeenth session.

 

Appendix III

Terms of reference for the design of the Green Climate Fund

1. The Transitional Committee shall develop and recommend to the Conference of the

Parties for its approval at its seventeenth session operational documents that address, inter alia:

(a)  The legal and institutional arrangements for the establishment and operationalization of the Green Climate Fund;

(b)The rules of procedure of the Green Climate Fund Board and other governance issues related to the Board;

(c) Methods to manage the large scale of financial resources from a number of sources and deliver through a variety of financial instruments, funding windows and access modalities, including direct access, with the objective of achieving a balanced allocation between adaptation and mitigation;

(d) The financial instruments that the Fund can use to achieve its priorities;

(e) Methods to enhance complementarity between the Fund’s activities and those of other bilateral, regional and multilateral funding mechanisms and institutions;

(f) The role of the Fund’s secretariat and the procedure for selecting and/or establishing the secretariat;

(g) A mechanism to ensure periodic independent evaluation of the Fund’s performance;

(h) Mechanisms to ensure financial accountability and to evaluate the performance of activities supported by the Fund, in order to ensure the application of environmental and social safeguards as well as internationally accepted fiduciary standards and sound financial management to the Fund’s activities;

(i) Mechanisms to ensure the provision of appropriate expert and technical advice, including from relevant thematic bodies established under the Convention;

(j) Mechanisms to ensure stakeholder input and participation.

2.  In the conduct of its work, the Transitional Committee shall:

(a)Convene its first meeting by March 2011;

(b)Encourage input from all Parties and from relevant international organizations and observers;

(c) Take into account the findings contained in relevant reports.

 

Appendix IV

Composition and mandate of the Technology Executive Committee

1. he Technology Executive Committee shall comprise 20 expert members, elected

by the Conference of the Parties (COP), serving in their personal capacity and nominated by Parties with the aim of achieving a fair and balanced representation, as follows:

(a)Nine members from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties);

(b)Three members from each of the three regions of the Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties), namely Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, one member from a small island developing State and one member from a least developed country Party.

2. Decisions will be taken according to the rule of consensus.

3. Parties are encouraged to nominate senior experts to the Technology Executive

Committee, with a view to achieving, within the membership, an appropriate balance of technical, legal, policy, social development and financial expertise relevant to the development and transfer of technology for adaptation and mitigation, taking into account the need to achieve gender balance in accordance with decision 36/CP.7.

4. Members shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible to serve a

maximum of two consecutive terms of office. The following rules shall apply:

(a)Half of the members shall be elected initially for a term of three years and half of the members shall be elected for a term of two years;

(b)Thereafter, the COP shall elect every year a member for a term of two years;

(c)The members shall remain in office until their successors are elected.

5. The Technology Executive Committee shall elect annually a chair and a vice-chair

from among its members for a term of one year each, with one being a member from an Annex I Party and the other being a member from a non-Annex I Party. The positions of chair and vice-chair shall alternate annually between a member from an Annex I Party and a member from a non-Annex I Party.

6. If the chair is temporarily unable to fulfil the obligations of the office, the vice-chair

shall serve as chair. In the absence of the chair and vice-chair at a particular meeting, any other member designated by the Technology Executive Committee shall temporarily serve as the chair of that meeting.

7. If the chair or vice-chair is unable to complete the term of office, the Technology

Executive Committee shall elect a replacement to complete the term of office, taking into account paragraph 5 above.

8. If a member of the Technology Executive Committee resigns or is otherwise unable

to complete the assigned term of office or to perform the functions of that office, the Technology Executive Committee may decide, bearing in mind the proximity of the next session of the COP, to appoint another member from the same constituency to replace said member for the remainder of that member’s mandate, in which case the appointment shall count as one term.

9. The Technology Executive Committee, in performing its functions, should draw

upon outside expertise, including the UNFCCC roster of experts and the Climate

 

Technology Centre and Network, to provide advice, including as expert advisers at its meetings.

  1. The Technology Executive Committee should seek input from intergovernmental and international organizations and the private sector and may seek input from civil society in undertaking its work. It may invite advisers drawn from relevant intergovernmental and international organizations as well as the private sector and civil society to participate in its meetings as expert advisers on specific issues as they arise.
  2. The meetings of the Technology Executive Committee shall be open to attendance by accredited observer organizations, except where otherwise decided by the Technology Executive Committee.
  3. The secretariat shall support and facilitate the work of the Technology Executive Committee.

9th plenary meeting 10–11 December 2010